In another context as found in other Vedic texts, the word means "pleasing, delightful, charming, beautiful, lovely". Sita, however, is not received by Rama unreservedly; he questions her chastity Jain Texts also mentioned Rama as the eighth balabhadra among the 63 salakapurusas. [117] It is observed through thousands[13] of Rama-related performance arts and dance events, that are staged during the festival of Navratri in India. They return to Ayodhya. [105], Rama Navami is a spring festival that celebrates the birthday of Rama. This place is believed in the Hindu tradition to be the same as Chitrakoot on the border of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. A series of titanic battles between Rama’s forces and the demons followed, but eventually Ravana was slain, Lanka fell to Rama’s army, and our hero was reunited with his wife. [citation needed], Versions of the Ramayana exist in most major Indian languages; examples that elaborate on the life, deeds and divine philosophies of Rama include the epic poem Ramavataram, and the following vernacular versions of Rama's life story:[69], The epic is found across India, in different languages and cultural traditions. [citation needed], Rama's life is remembered and celebrated every year with dramatic plays and fireworks in autumn.

[41] Sita refuses him. Rama’s father is King Dasaratha, a prince of the solar race, and his mother is Queen Kausalya. One day, a demoness called Shurpanakha saw Rama, became enamored of him, and tried to seduce him. [40] Meanwhile, Ravana harasses Sita to be his wife, queen or goddess. and she goes to live in the ashram of sage Valmiki and bears twin sons Lava and Kusa, who as young men became reunited with their father, the god-king Rama. [95], Other important historic Hindu texts on Rama include Bhusundi Ramanaya, Prasanna raghava, and Ramavali by Tulsidas. [103], Rama's story has had a major socio-cultural and inspirational influence across South Asia and Southeast Asia.[9][104]. [98], The Mahabharata has a summary of the Ramayana.

[37] Dasharatha grieves at her request. [91] The second describes, through the character of Rama, the desire for liberation and the nature of those who seek such liberation. The followers of Madhvacharya believe that an older version of the Ramayana, the Mula-Ramayana, previously existed. [18], The Vishnu avatar named Rama is also known by other names. Janaka was a devotee of Lord Shiva who had given him His bow as a gift. Web. He has a voice (deep) like the sound of a kettledrum and glossy skin, [91] These two books are known for emphasising free will and human creative power. Rama, Laksmana, Hanuman, and his monkey army lay siege on Lanka. [72][74][84] According to Kapoor, Rama's life story in the Ramacharitamanasa combines mythology, philosophy, and religious beliefs into a story of life, a code of ethics, a treatise on universal human values. [27], Rama was born on the ninth day of the lunar month Chaitra (March–April), a day celebrated across India as Ram Navami.
Jealous of Rama, she soured the opinion of Kaikeyi, Dasaratha’s second wife, and convinced her to persuade her husband to instead make Bharata heir to the throne. Cite This Work According to the Jain version, Lakshmana (Vasudeva) is the one who kills Ravana (Prativasudeva). The great god Vishnu answered the gods’ call and appeared in a sacrificial fire made by Dasaratha. [137][note 4] The 2nd-century BCE stone relief carvings on Bharhut stupa, as told in the Dasaratha-Jataka, is the earliest known non-textual evidence of Rama story being prevalent in ancient India. [95] The Yoga Vasistha, according to White, was one of the popular texts on Yoga that dominated the Indian Yoga culture scene before the 12th century. [19], According to Douglas Q. Adams, the Sanskrit word Rama is also found in other Indo-European languages such as Tocharian ram, reme, *romo- where it means "support, make still", "witness, make evident".
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Rama’s first adventure occurred when the sage Visvamitra asked for help in fighting a demon or raksasa. Rama’s favourite brother and great companion was Laksmana, son of Sumitra, while his loyal servant was the monkey warrior Hanuman (or Hanumat). So, accompanied by Sita and his ever faithful companion Laksmana, Rama went to live in the far south in Citrakuta, deep in the Dandaka forest. He refuses and spurns her (above). [47] Rama dying by drowning himself is found in the Myanmar version of Rama's life story called Thiri Rama. [48], Rama's legends vary significantly by the region and across manuscripts. Nevertheless, Rama wades into the river Sarayu and from there is welcomed into heaven by Brahma. [43][44] It is believed by many that when Rama returned people celebrated their happiness with fireworks, and the festival of Diwali is connected with Rama's return. [127][128] Thai kings, continuing into the contemporary era, have been called Rama, a name inspired by Rama of Ramakien – the local version of Sanskrit Ramayana, according to Constance Jones and James Ryan. Ramlila is particularly notable in historically important Hindu cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna and Madhubani – cities in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. https://www.ancient.eu/Rama/. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. [73][74], The text represents Rama as the Brahman (metaphysical reality), mapping all attributes and aspects of Rama to abstract virtues and spiritual ideals.

Some Vaishnava Hindus visit a temple, others pray within their home, and some participate in a bhajan or kirtan with music as a part of puja and aarti. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The Rama of Jainism has numerous wives as does Lakshmana, unlike the virtue of monogamy given to Rama in the Hindu texts. [29][30] The Jain versions of the Ramayana, such as the Paumacariya (literally deeds of Padma) by Vimalasuri, also mention the details of the early life of Rama. The king reluctantly agrees, so Rama goes with his beautiful wife, Sita, and his brother Laksmana, leaving their riches to live a simple life.

His mother's name Kaushalya literally implies that she was from Kosala.

Two such texts, for example, are the Adhyatma Ramayana – a spiritual and theological treatise considered foundational by Ramanandi monasteries,[12] and the Ramcharitmanas – a popular treatise that inspires thousands of Ramlila festival performances during autumn every year in India. In gratitude Rama was given divine weapons, and he set off for more adventures, ending up in Mithila. [124], The Ramayana was translated from Sanskrit into old Javanese around 860 CE, while the performance arts culture most likely developed from the oral tradition inspired by the Tamil and Bengali versions of Rama-based dance and plays. In the forest the three meet the demoness Surpanakha who falls in love with Rama. In the Jain tradition, Neminatha is believed to have been born 84,000 years before the 9th-century BCE Parshvanatha.
The festival is a part of the spring Navratri, and falls on the ninth day of the bright half of Chaitra month in the traditional Hindu calendar.

[134], The Dasaratha-Jataka (Tale no. The festival is an occasion for moral reflection for many Hindus. [94] The text, states David Gordon White, served as a reference on Yoga for medieval era Advaita Vedanta scholars. [123][125] The story of Rama's life has been popular in Southeast Asia. [91] The third and fourth books assert that liberation comes through a spiritual life, one that requires self-effort, and present cosmology and metaphysical theories of existence embedded in stories. She does, and passes the test. Carrying Rama's ring he finds Sita and identifies himself as Rama's messenger. [91][92] The fifth book discusses meditation and its powers in liberating the individual, while the last book describes the state of an enlightened and blissful Rama. [86][119], The Ramlila festivities were declared by UNESCO as one of the "Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity" in 2008. Ramayanam is the story of Rama, a prince of Ayodhya, who lived five to six thousand years or more ago. [86][120] The epic and its dramatic play migrated into southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE, and Ramayana based Ramlila is a part of performance arts culture of Indonesia, particularly the Hindu society of Bali, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand.[121]. Selva Raj and William Harman (2007), Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia, State University of New York Press. Just like Vijayadashmi, Diwali is celebrated by different communities across India to commemorate different events in addition to Rama's return to Ayodhya. He is most often seen with Sita, Laksmana, and Hanuman – collectively known as Rama’s family or Rama Parivara. Retiring King Dasaratha of Ayodha chooses his son Rama as his heir. [citation needed], Hindu temples dedicated to Rama were built by early 5th century, according to copper plate inscription evidence, but these have not survived. Sita is delighted, but Hanuman is caught and Ravana sets Hanuman's tail on fire. Further, the adventures of Rama illustrate above all the importance and rewards of fulfilling one’s pious duty or dharma. [86], — Yoga Vasistha (Vasistha teaching Rama)Tr: Christopher Chapple[87], Yoga Vasistha is a Sanskrit text structured as a conversation between young Prince Rama and sage Vasistha who was called as the first sage of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy by Adi Shankara. Such was the reciprocation of love and compassion he had for his people. Kaikeyi pleads that he owes her two favors, and she feels misfortune will come upon her if he doesn't crown Bharata Ravana comes to Panchavati to take revenge on behalf of his family, sees Sita, gets attracted, and kidnaps Sita to his kingdom of Lanka (believed to be modern Sri Lanka). [124] In particular, the influence of Rama and other cultural ideas grew in Java, Bali, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. [citation needed], Rama's life story, both in the written form of Sanskrit Ramayana and the oral tradition arrived in southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE. They travel south, meet Sugriva, marshall an army of monkeys, and attract dedicated commanders such as Hanuman who is a minister of Sugriva. [109] The community organises charitable events and volunteer meals. [54] Padmapurana mentions Rama as a contemporary of Munisuvrata, 20th tirthankara of Jainism. Not best pleased with this treatment, the enraged demoness gathered an army of demons to attack the trio. Hanuman escapes and sets fire to Lanka. [49], The stories vary in details, particularly where the moral question is clear, but the appropriate ethical response is unclear or disputed.

In another context as found in other Vedic texts, the word means "pleasing, delightful, charming, beautiful, lovely". Sita, however, is not received by Rama unreservedly; he questions her chastity Jain Texts also mentioned Rama as the eighth balabhadra among the 63 salakapurusas. [117] It is observed through thousands[13] of Rama-related performance arts and dance events, that are staged during the festival of Navratri in India. They return to Ayodhya. [105], Rama Navami is a spring festival that celebrates the birthday of Rama. This place is believed in the Hindu tradition to be the same as Chitrakoot on the border of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. A series of titanic battles between Rama’s forces and the demons followed, but eventually Ravana was slain, Lanka fell to Rama’s army, and our hero was reunited with his wife. [citation needed], Versions of the Ramayana exist in most major Indian languages; examples that elaborate on the life, deeds and divine philosophies of Rama include the epic poem Ramavataram, and the following vernacular versions of Rama's life story:[69], The epic is found across India, in different languages and cultural traditions. [citation needed], Rama's life is remembered and celebrated every year with dramatic plays and fireworks in autumn.

[41] Sita refuses him. Rama’s father is King Dasaratha, a prince of the solar race, and his mother is Queen Kausalya. One day, a demoness called Shurpanakha saw Rama, became enamored of him, and tried to seduce him. [40] Meanwhile, Ravana harasses Sita to be his wife, queen or goddess. and she goes to live in the ashram of sage Valmiki and bears twin sons Lava and Kusa, who as young men became reunited with their father, the god-king Rama. [95], Other important historic Hindu texts on Rama include Bhusundi Ramanaya, Prasanna raghava, and Ramavali by Tulsidas. [103], Rama's story has had a major socio-cultural and inspirational influence across South Asia and Southeast Asia.[9][104]. [98], The Mahabharata has a summary of the Ramayana.

[37] Dasharatha grieves at her request. [91] The second describes, through the character of Rama, the desire for liberation and the nature of those who seek such liberation. The followers of Madhvacharya believe that an older version of the Ramayana, the Mula-Ramayana, previously existed. [18], The Vishnu avatar named Rama is also known by other names. Janaka was a devotee of Lord Shiva who had given him His bow as a gift. Web. He has a voice (deep) like the sound of a kettledrum and glossy skin, [91] These two books are known for emphasising free will and human creative power. Rama, Laksmana, Hanuman, and his monkey army lay siege on Lanka. [72][74][84] According to Kapoor, Rama's life story in the Ramacharitamanasa combines mythology, philosophy, and religious beliefs into a story of life, a code of ethics, a treatise on universal human values. [27], Rama was born on the ninth day of the lunar month Chaitra (March–April), a day celebrated across India as Ram Navami.
Jealous of Rama, she soured the opinion of Kaikeyi, Dasaratha’s second wife, and convinced her to persuade her husband to instead make Bharata heir to the throne. Cite This Work According to the Jain version, Lakshmana (Vasudeva) is the one who kills Ravana (Prativasudeva). The great god Vishnu answered the gods’ call and appeared in a sacrificial fire made by Dasaratha. [137][note 4] The 2nd-century BCE stone relief carvings on Bharhut stupa, as told in the Dasaratha-Jataka, is the earliest known non-textual evidence of Rama story being prevalent in ancient India. [95] The Yoga Vasistha, according to White, was one of the popular texts on Yoga that dominated the Indian Yoga culture scene before the 12th century. [19], According to Douglas Q. Adams, the Sanskrit word Rama is also found in other Indo-European languages such as Tocharian ram, reme, *romo- where it means "support, make still", "witness, make evident".

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